Population & Language

Today the Mongolia has more than 3 million population and over 1 million people live in rural areas and are mainly engaged in traditional livestock herding and some extent in crop production. Population density one person per 1.6 square km. 68% of the total populations are young people under the age of 35. The average life expectancy is just over 65 year. The present urban population is above 1 million. In Ulaanbaatar having 800,000 inhabitants-one third of the total population of Mongolia.

Mongolian Language and Literature

The Mongolian language belongs to the Ural - Altaic language family. This included Kazakh, Turkish, Korean and Finnish. Today more than 10 million people speak Mongolian. They live in Mongolia , Buriat republic of Russian federation , Inner Mongolia in China , Shingjan and Gansu regions of China , Tibet and a few people living in the State of New Jersey State in the USA . The history of Mongolian language divided into the old, middle and modern Mongolian periods. The old Mongolian continued from ancient times till 12 Century. Middle Mongolian period is 12-16 th Centuries. That's the time when the "Secret History of Mongols", Arab Mongolian dictionary, Persian- Mongolian Dictionary and other important documents including H'Phags-pa square letter. Document composed in 1269. The modern Mongolian period started in the 17 th Century. The beginning of the period is characterized by the development of the standard written Mongolian language and book printing that use to wooden printing blocks. Mongolians have invented and used about 10 different kinds of scripts, letters and characters; square, Tod and Soyombo letters made a significant contribution to the development of the Mongolian language.

Mongolian ethnic and linguistic group

Now a day in Mongolia about 20 ethnic groups of either Mongol or Turkish origin. Mongolian ethnic groups into main 2 parts they are named Oirat (eastern of Mongolia ), and the western ones (Khalkha and Barga). About 80% of population is Khalkha ethnic group. In the western part of the country, significant slice of the population speaks a dialect of Turkish. The Largest of these ethnic groups are the Kazakh about 5% of population, the Uriankhai -Tuva, Tsaatan, and Khoton. Oirat groups are speaking slightly different variation of Mongolia. They are subdivided into several ethnic groups: the Bayat (about 2 % of population.), the Dorvod (about 3% of population), the Olot and Torguut, Buryat ethnic group (about 2 % of population). In addition, there are some 3.5 million Mongols in China (Inner Mongolia , Qinghai , Xingjian), and about 500,000 in Russia , mainly Buryat from Siberia , but also some Kalmuk.


Before Revolution in 1921 99% of population did not know script in Mongolia . Before People's Revolution just males were studied religious schools. Females couldn't study any schools. After Revolution all people want to study Mongolian classical Uigur script. It was a biggest develops our culture and education sector. In 1941 Center Committee changed Mongolian classical script into the Russian Cyrillic alphabet since that time all Mongolian people used to Russian Cyrillic alphabet. During the Socialist time Mongolia had not have private school and institutes. Just had State universities such as today's Mongolian National University , and Mongolian University of Education. Socialist time children who has 8 years old they entered elementary school and then they studied 10 years. Since in 2005 high schools are changed world school standard it means children study in high school 11 years. When they graduated high school some students will study abroad. But it was just communist countries. At that time tuition fee was free of charge. After the democratic change some people founded new private school and institutes. The average tuition fee is 800US$. Last a few years' government supporting to developing students and youth. Mongolian half of the population is young people under age of the 35.


Mongolia has a rich heritage of traditional medicine that is directly connected with nomadic way of life Mongolians have been following for many centuries. Herbal medicine, acupuncture, cauterization, massage and bone setting have been popular for many years. The history of modern medicine started in 1925 when the Russian doctor, Shastin, initiated and founded the first 'People's hospital with 15 beds. During the socialist period, the policy to develop a network of medical organizations with trained staff and required equipment had been successfully implemented. The health sector of the country is represented by Medical schools of all levels; the Center for hygiene and epidemiology; medical research institutes; Mother and Child Care center; Central Clinical hospitals, Medicine supply agency, Pharmaceutical factory, Agency of Quality Assurance Drugs; Bio preparations and Medical Care; aimag and soum center hospitals, and many other medical institutions and agencies. Political and economical changes that are talking place in the country have led to transformation in the structure of the health sector. As a result of those, about 400 new private and state clinics, hospitals and health centers are being opened. Mongolian doctors are can speak Russian very well but most of them can't speak English.

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